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dig • man/dig • man/orig/dig • Пример использования dig



[править] NAME

      dig - DNS lookup utility

[править] SYNOPSIS

      dig [@server] [-b address] [-c class] [-f filename] [-k filename] [-m]
          [-p port#] [-q name] [-t type] [-v] [-x addr] [-y [hmac:]name:key]
          [-4] [-6] [name] [type] [class] [queryopt...]
      dig [-h]
      dig [global-queryopt...] [query...]


      dig (domain information groper) is a flexible tool for interrogating
      DNS name servers. It performs DNS lookups and displays the answers that
      are returned from the name server(s) that were queried. Most DNS
      administrators use dig to troubleshoot DNS problems because of its
      flexibility, ease of use and clarity of output. Other lookup tools tend
      to have less functionality than dig.
      Although dig is normally used with command-line arguments, it also has
      a batch mode of operation for reading lookup requests from a file. A
      brief summary of its command-line arguments and options is printed when
      the -h option is given. Unlike earlier versions, the BIND 9
      implementation of dig allows multiple lookups to be issued from the
      command line.
      Unless it is told to query a specific name server, dig will try each of
      the servers listed in /etc/resolv.conf. If no usable server addresses
      are found, dig will send the query to the local host.
      When no command line arguments or options are given, dig will perform
      an NS query for "." (the root).
      It is possible to set per-user defaults for dig via ${HOME}/.digrc.
      This file is read and any options in it are applied before the command
      line arguments.
      The IN and CH class names overlap with the IN and CH top level domain
      names. Either use the -t and -c options to specify the type and class,
      use the -q the specify the domain name, or use "IN." and "CH." when
      looking up these top level domains.

[править] SIMPLE USAGE

      A typical invocation of dig looks like:
           dig @server name type
          is the name or IP address of the name server to query. This can be
          an IPv4 address in dotted-decimal notation or an IPv6 address in
          colon-delimited notation. When the supplied server argument is a
          hostname, dig resolves that name before querying that name server.
          If no server argument is provided, dig consults /etc/resolv.conf;
          if an address is found there, it queries the name server at that
          address. If either of the -4 or -6 options are in use, then only
          addresses for the corresponding transport will be tried. If no
          usable addresses are found, dig will send the query to the local
          host. The reply from the name server that responds is displayed.
          is the name of the resource record that is to be looked up.
          indicates what type of query is required -- ANY, A, MX, SIG, etc.
          type can be any valid query type. If no type argument is supplied,
          dig will perform a lookup for an A record.

[править] OPTIONS

      The -b option sets the source IP address of the query to address. This
      must be a valid address on one of the host's network interfaces or
      "" or "::". An optional port may be specified by appending
      The default query class (IN for internet) is overridden by the -c
      option.  class is any valid class, such as HS for Hesiod records or CH
      for Chaosnet records.
      The -f option makes dig operate in batch mode by reading a list of
      lookup requests to process from the file filename. The file contains a
      number of queries, one per line. Each entry in the file should be
      organized in the same way they would be presented as queries to dig
      using the command-line interface.
      The -m option enables memory usage debugging.
      If a non-standard port number is to be queried, the -p option is used.
      port# is the port number that dig will send its queries instead of the
      standard DNS port number 53. This option would be used to test a name
      server that has been configured to listen for queries on a non-standard
      port number.
      The -4 option forces dig to only use IPv4 query transport. The -6
      option forces dig to only use IPv6 query transport.
      The -t option sets the query type to type. It can be any valid query
      type which is supported in BIND 9. The default query type is "A",
      unless the -x option is supplied to indicate a reverse lookup. A zone
      transfer can be requested by specifying a type of AXFR. When an
      incremental zone transfer (IXFR) is required, type is set to ixfr=N.
      The incremental zone transfer will contain the changes made to the zone
      since the serial number in the zone's SOA record was N.
      The -q option sets the query name to name. This is useful to
      distinguish the name from other arguments.
      The -v causes dig to print the version number and exit.
      Reverse lookups -- mapping addresses to names -- are simplified by the
      -x option.  addr is an IPv4 address in dotted-decimal notation, or a
      colon-delimited IPv6 address. When this option is used, there is no
      need to provide the name, class and type arguments.  dig automatically
      performs a lookup for a name like and sets the
      query type and class to PTR and IN respectively. By default, IPv6
      addresses are looked up using nibble format under the IP6.ARPA domain.
      To use the older RFC1886 method using the IP6.INT domain specify the -i
      option. Bit string labels (RFC2874) are now experimental and are not
      To sign the DNS queries sent by dig and their responses using
      transaction signatures (TSIG), specify a TSIG key file using the -k
      option. You can also specify the TSIG key itself on the command line
      using the -y option; hmac is the type of the TSIG, default HMAC-MD5,
      name is the name of the TSIG key and key is the actual key. The key is
      a base-64 encoded string, typically generated by dnssec-keygen(8).
      Caution should be taken when using the -y option on multi-user systems
      as the key can be visible in the output from ps(1) or in the shell's
      history file. When using TSIG authentication with dig, the name server
      that is queried needs to know the key and algorithm that is being used.
      In BIND, this is done by providing appropriate key and server
      statements in named.conf.


      dig provides a number of query options which affect the way in which
      lookups are made and the results displayed. Some of these set or reset
      flag bits in the query header, some determine which sections of the
      answer get printed, and others determine the timeout and retry
      Each query option is identified by a keyword preceded by a plus sign
      (+). Some keywords set or reset an option. These may be preceded by the
      string no to negate the meaning of that keyword. Other keywords assign
      values to options like the timeout interval. They have the form
      +keyword=value. The query options are:
          A synonym for +[no]aaonly.
          Sets the "aa" flag in the query.
          Display [do not display] the additional section of a reply. The
          default is to display it.
          Set [do not set] the AD (authentic data) bit in the query. This
          requests the server to return whether all of the answer and
          authority sections have all been validated as secure according to
          the security policy of the server. AD=1 indicates that all records
          have been validated as secure and the answer is not from a OPT-OUT
          range. AD=0 indicate that some part of the answer was insecure or
          not validated. This bit is set by default.
          Set or clear all display flags.
          Display [do not display] the answer section of a reply. The default
          is to display it.
          Display [do not display] the authority section of a reply. The
          default is to display it.
          Attempt to display the contents of messages which are malformed.
          The default is to not display malformed answers.
          Set the UDP message buffer size advertised using EDNS0 to B bytes.
          The maximum and minimum sizes of this buffer are 65535 and 0
          respectively. Values outside this range are rounded up or down
          appropriately. Values other than zero will cause a EDNS query to be
          Set [do not set] the CD (checking disabled) bit in the query. This
          requests the server to not perform DNSSEC validation of responses.
          Display [do not display] the CLASS when printing the record.
          Toggles the printing of the initial comment in the output
          identifying the version of dig and the query options that have been
          applied. This comment is printed by default.
          Toggle the display of comment lines in the output. The default is
          to print comments.
          Toggle the display of cryptographic fields in DNSSEC records. The
          contents of these field are unnecessary to debug most DNSSEC
          validation failures and removing them makes it easier to see the
          common failures. The default is to display the fields. When omitted
          they are replaced by the string "[omitted]" or in the DNSKEY case
          the key id is displayed as the replacement, e.g. "[ key id = value
          Deprecated, treated as a synonym for +[no]search
          Requests DNSSEC records be sent by setting the DNSSEC OK bit (DO)
          in the OPT record in the additional section of the query.
          Set the search list to contain the single domain somename, as if
          specified in a domain directive in /etc/resolv.conf, and enable
          search list processing as if the +search option were given.
          Specify the EDNS version to query with. Valid values are 0 to 255.
          Setting the EDNS version will cause a EDNS query to be sent.
          +noedns clears the remembered EDNS version. EDNS is set to 0 by
          Send an EDNS Expire option.
          Do not try the next server if you receive a SERVFAIL. The default
          is to not try the next server which is the reverse of normal stub
          resolver behavior.
          Show [or do not show] the IP address and port number that supplied
          the answer when the +short option is enabled. If short form answers
          are requested, the default is not to show the source address and
          port number of the server that provided the answer.
          Ignore truncation in UDP responses instead of retrying with TCP. By
          default, TCP retries are performed.
          Keep the TCP socket open between queries and reuse it rather than
          creating a new TCP socket for each lookup. The default is
          Print records like the SOA records in a verbose multi-line format
          with human-readable comments. The default is to print each record
          on a single line, to facilitate machine parsing of the dig output.
          Set the number of dots that have to appear in name to D for it to
          be considered absolute. The default value is that defined using the
          ndots statement in /etc/resolv.conf, or 1 if no ndots statement is
          present. Names with fewer dots are interpreted as relative names
          and will be searched for in the domains listed in the search or
          domain directive in /etc/resolv.conf.
          Include an EDNS name server ID request when sending a query.
          When this option is set, dig attempts to find the authoritative
          name servers for the zone containing the name being looked up and
          display the SOA record that each name server has for the zone.
          Print only one (starting) SOA record when performing an AXFR. The
          default is to print both the starting and ending SOA records.
          Print [do not print] the query as it is sent. By default, the query
          is not printed.
          Print [do not print] the question section of a query when an answer
          is returned. The default is to print the question section as a
          Toggle the setting of the RD (recursion desired) bit in the query.
          This bit is set by default, which means dig normally sends
          recursive queries. Recursion is automatically disabled when the
          +nssearch or +trace query options are used.
          Sets the number of times to retry UDP queries to server to T
          instead of the default, 2. Unlike +tries, this does not include the
          initial query.
          Toggle the display of per-record comments in the output (for
          example, human-readable key information about DNSKEY records). The
          default is not to print record comments unless multiline mode is
          Use [do not use] the search list defined by the searchlist or
          domain directive in resolv.conf (if any). The search list is not
          used by default.
          Provide a terse answer. The default is to print the answer in a
          verbose form.
          Perform [do not perform] a search showing intermediate results.
          Chase DNSSEC signature chains. Requires dig be compiled with
          Send a Source Identity Token EDNS option, with optional value.
          Replaying a SIT from a previous response will allow the server to
          identify a previous client. The default is +nosit. Currently using
          experimental value 65001 for the option code.
          Split long hex- or base64-formatted fields in resource records into
          chunks of W characters (where W is rounded up to the nearest
          multiple of 4).  +nosplit or +split=0 causes fields not to be split
          at all. The default is 56 characters, or 44 characters when
          multiline mode is active.
          This query option toggles the printing of statistics: when the
          query was made, the size of the reply and so on. The default
          behavior is to print the query statistics.
          Send an EDNS Client Subnet option with the specified IP address or
          network prefix.
          Use [do not use] TCP when querying name servers. The default
          behavior is to use UDP unless an ixfr=N query is requested, in
          which case the default is TCP. AXFR queries always use TCP.
          Sets the timeout for a query to T seconds. The default timeout is 5
          seconds. An attempt to set T to less than 1 will result in a query
          timeout of 1 second being applied.
          When chasing DNSSEC signature chains perform a top-down validation.
          Requires dig be compiled with -DDIG_SIGCHASE.
          Toggle tracing of the delegation path from the root name servers
          for the name being looked up. Tracing is disabled by default. When
          tracing is enabled, dig makes iterative queries to resolve the name
          being looked up. It will follow referrals from the root servers,
          showing the answer from each server that was used to resolve the
          +dnssec is also set when +trace is set to better emulate the
          default queries from a nameserver.
          Sets the number of times to try UDP queries to server to T instead
          of the default, 3. If T is less than or equal to zero, the number
          of tries is silently rounded up to 1.
          Specifies a file containing trusted keys to be used with +sigchase.
          Each DNSKEY record must be on its own line.
          If not specified, dig will look for /etc/trusted-key.key then
          trusted-key.key in the current directory.
          Requires dig be compiled with -DDIG_SIGCHASE.
          Display [do not display] the TTL when printing the record.
          Use [do not use] TCP when querying name servers. This alternate
          syntax to +[no]tcp is provided for backwards compatibility. The
          "vc" stands for "virtual circuit".


      The BIND 9 implementation of dig supports specifying multiple queries
      on the command line (in addition to supporting the -f batch file
      option). Each of those queries can be supplied with its own set of
      flags, options and query options.
      In this case, each query argument represent an individual query in the
      command-line syntax described above. Each consists of any of the
      standard options and flags, the name to be looked up, an optional query
      type and class and any query options that should be applied to that
      A global set of query options, which should be applied to all queries,
      can also be supplied. These global query options must precede the first
      tuple of name, class, type, options, flags, and query options supplied
      on the command line. Any global query options (except the +[no]cmd
      option) can be overridden by a query-specific set of query options. For
          dig +qr www.isc.org any -x isc.org ns +noqr
      shows how dig could be used from the command line to make three
      lookups: an ANY query for www.isc.org, a reverse lookup of
      and a query for the NS records of isc.org. A global query option of +qr
      is applied, so that dig shows the initial query it made for each
      lookup. The final query has a local query option of +noqr which means
      that dig will not print the initial query when it looks up the NS
      records for isc.org.

[править] IDN SUPPORT

      If dig has been built with IDN (internationalized domain name) support,
      it can accept and display non-ASCII domain names.  dig appropriately
      converts character encoding of domain name before sending a request to
      DNS server or displaying a reply from the server. If you'd like to turn
      off the IDN support for some reason, defines the IDN_DISABLE
      environment variable. The IDN support is disabled if the variable is
      set when dig runs.

[править] FILES


[править] SEE ALSO

[править] BUGS

      There are probably too many query options.

[править] COPYRIGHT

      Copyright (C) 2004-2011, 2013, 2014 Internet Systems Consortium, Inc.
      Copyright (C) 2000-2003 Internet Software Consortium.

BIND9 February 19, 2014 DIG(1)

Источник — «http://ww.xgu.ru/wiki/man/orig/dig(1)»